Ik zit geregeld met opwinding jouw verhalen te lezen Gea. Although some of them had remained pagan, another part of them, not the least, had become Christian. Retrieved "Press Release Nobel Peace Prize 1996". Conflicts involving authority in the church, particularly the authority of the Bishop of Rome finally culminated in the EastWest Schism in the 11th century, splitting the church into the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. Ehrman 284 question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy. 338 In 1870, the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements, 339 340 striking a blow to the rival position of conciliarism. In the face of increased criticism from both within and without, the church has upheld or reaffirmed at various times controversial doctrinal positions regarding sexuality and gender, including limiting clergy to males, and moral exhortations against abortion, contraception, sexual activity outside of marriage, remarriage following. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter. Retrieved " Compendium of the CCC, 297". 179 Anointing of the sick Main article: Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop to bless a Catholic who, because.